The DSLR vs mirrorless decision is still worth thinking about. Camera makers have largely switched over to mirrorless camera systems, but DSLR cameras are still being made, still being sold and still being bought! So let's see what the differences are, and where each camera type has an advantage.
DSLRs and mirrorless cameras differ in their construction and design, but not in their sensors, image quality, technologies and indeed many of their features. The differences are partly physical – the way these two camera designs look, handle and work – and partly technical in terms 4K (or even 6K or 8K) video capture and autofocus systems.
But one huge factor that should not be forgotten is personal preference. Ultimately, your choice between mirrorless and DSLR will likely come down to which one you like using more!
DSLRs and mirrorless cameras offer a distinctly different shooting experience, and while mirrorless cameras have the latest technology on their side, DSLRs have more traditional physical qualities, including optical viewfinders and old-fashioned virtues like battery life.
So let's take a look at some of the differences in more detail.
Mirrorless vs DSLR in 2022
1. The mirror
DSLRs and mirrorless cameras both show the scene through the camera lens itself as you compose the picture, but the way they display it is completely different. DSLRs use a mirror to reflect an optical image up into the viewfinder. You are looking at an optical image. When you take a picture, the mirror flips up so that the image can then pass to the back of the camera where the sensor is exposed to the image.
Mirrorless cameras take a different approach. They use the ‘live view’ captured by the camera sensor itself to create an electronic image that can be displayed either on the rear screen or in an electronic viewfinder. There is no mirror mechanism to flip up and out of the way.
But what sounds like a win-win situation is a little more complicated than that. First, many people prefer the optical image of a DSLR viewfinder. Second, digital displays consume a lot more power, and mirrorless cameras still can’t compete with DSLRs for battery life.
The key difference here is that mirrorless cameras use a single autofocus system for both rear screen and viewfinder shooting, whereas DSLRs – confusingly – have to use two.
DSLRs use dedicated 'phase detect' autofocus sensors which are in the base of the camera behind the mirror. When you take a picture, the mirror flips up and out of the way and that means the AF sensor is no longer available.
Back when DSLRs didn't have live view, this wasn't a problem. But when the demand grew for live view shooting using the rear screen, DSLRs had to switch to autofocus systems that used the image formed on the sensor itself.
So you have a situation that persists to this day – DSLRs have one autofocus system for the viewfinder and a different one for live view shooting.
In terms of performance, mirrorless cameras have largely caught up with DSLRs for autofocus speed and surpass them for frame coverage and tracking features.
Mirrorless cameras can now be successfully used for fast-moving sports and action photography that once demanded a DSLR. In fact, if you look at the capabilities of the hybrid on-sensor autofocus system in the latest Sony A7 IV, even DSLR diehards would have to concede that the separate phase-detect AF systems in DSLRs are dinosaurs by comparison.
The design of mirrorless cameras means they need to use electronic viewfinders. These have improved hugely in a very short space of time.
The latest and best electronic viewfinders available today have such high resolution that you can hardly see the ‘dots’ and they have a clarity that genuinely approaches optical viewfinders.
However, they can still suffer from lag, or 'latency' – a tiny delay between what the camera sees and what the screen shows. Viewfinder lag is less of an issue than it used to be thanks to faster refresh rates, and the most recent area of focus for manufacturers has been in the blackout effect you would typically see when shooting continuous bursts of images. Sony managed to eliminate this on its A9 model, and Panasonic claims the same for its Lumix G9 .
Electronic viewfinders can show a more clearly visible view of a scene in low light, and have zoom functions for precise manual focusing – two highly underrated benefits of electronic viewfinders. Because of their auto-gain light amplification effect, electronic viewfinders let you compose and shoot images in near darkness, and have made small-aperture telephotos like the Canon RF 600mm f/11 and RF 800mm f/11 perfectly practical to use.
It's also worth pointing out that if you are a fan of vintage manual lenses which need to be used in stopped-down mode, a DSLR viewfinder will be way too dark but a mirrorless EVF will be fine.
However, many photographers still prefer the ‘naked eye’ view of an optical viewfinder over a digital one. You'll soon see the image the camera has recorded in playback mode anyway.
Optical viewfinders have another key advantage that’s particularly relevant for sports and action photographers. There is unavoidable screen blackout in the camera’s burst shooting mode as the mirror flips up and down between exposures, but this is rarely an issue – the key point is that there is no lag, and it’s much easier to follow a fast-moving subject with a high-speed DSLR like the Nikon D500, for example, than it is with the average mirrorless camera.
4. Battery life
Even very basic DSLRs will happily offer 600 shots per battery charge, but the entry-level Nikon D3500 DSLR, for example, can capture up to 1,550 images on a single charge. The very best pro DSLRs can rattle off almost 4000 frames per charge, although this is admittedly with considerably larger batteries. With the Nikon D6, Nikon claims a stunning battery life of 3,580 shots – and twice that if the camera is used for high-speed continuous shooting.
Mirrorless cameras, however, fare far less impressively here, with around 350-400 frames per charge being the norm while some are a whole lot less. The Sony A7R III ushered in an extended 650-shot battery life almost double that of its predecessors, and the Sony A7R IV even improves on that slightly, so that’s a significant step forwards, but the Canon EOS RP can only manage 250 shots.
Mirrorless cameras are inherently more dependent on battery power than DSLRs. Either the LCD display or the electronic viewfinder is on all the time. Furthermore, the fact that most manufacturers try to make mirrorless models as small as possible means that their batteries are also small, which also presents a limit on their capacity.
Of course, you can buy spare batteries for cameras in both camps, so whether this is as great an issue or not is debatable. One advantage of mirrorless cameras, however, is that many now offer charging through their USB ports, like the Sony A6400, which is very convenient when travelling, though this is starting to appear on DSLRs like the Nikon D780 too.
The most often claimed advantage of mirrorless systems is that they are much smaller than DSLRs. This is the main sell of mirrorless systems: the same size of sensor and image quality as offered by a DSLR without the bulk.
But there are often trade-offs in making a mirrorless camera body so compact, such as battery life, the way a camera handles with larger lenses, and how much space there is for external dials and buttons.
Small bodies also means small controls, and users with larger hands may not find smaller mirrorless bodies easy to use. This extends to touchscreens too, with virtual buttons and controls often too small for then to be keyed comfortably, so although the Nikon D850 DSLR seems huge in comparison to today's full frame mirrorless camera, many of its pro users will prefer its size because it makes it much easier to see and change camera settings – and because it balances better with big lenses, which is what we cover in the next section.
DSLRs still have an advantage for lens choice, simply because they've been around and supported for decades. Anyone that opts for a Canon EOS DSLR today has 30 years’ worth of native optics to choose from, and many more when you factor in compatible third-party options. Nikon and Pentax are in a similar position with their DSLR ranges.
However, the development of new DSLR lenses has slowed dramatically. Canon and Nikon now put almost all of their lens development effort into mirrorless lenses. Not only that, wider mirrorless lens mounts and shorter back-focus 'flange' distances have given lens designers a blank slate, and many new mirrorless lenses out-perform older DSLR equivalents.
It hasn’t taken Sony long to assemble an impressive range of lenses for its full-frame FE mount mirrorless cameras (see our list of the best Sony lenses), and Panasonic has been smart enough enter into an L-Mount Alliance with Sigma and Leica to ensure that it's already supported with a large and growing lens range. See our guide to the best L-mount lenses for more.
Nikon and Canon have been especially clever with their new full frame mirrorless cameras. Nikon makes an FTZ mount adaptor for using any of Nikon’s current DSLR lenses without restriction. Canon has also launched lens adapters for its EOS R full-frame mirrorless cameras, opening up its entire range of EF DSLR lenses to these cameras.
Fujifilm and Olympus have also had time to develop their own native lens systems, to the degree that none of the mirrorless camera brands is now at any real disadvantage regarding lens choice (see our list of the best Fujifilm lenses, for example).
HOWEVER, mirrorless camera lenses are non inherently smaller. Mirrorless camera makers can indeed demonstrate that their camera bodies are a lot smaller than their DSLR counterparts, but the same can’t be said for their lenses.
It’s the sensor size that largely determines the size of camera lenses, not whether. the camera is mirrorless or not. Some mirrorless makers have produced small or retracting lenses that do offer a size saving, but when lens makers produce mirrorless lenses to match the specifications and performance of DSLR lenses, they end up pretty much the same size.
This is where mirrorless cameras have a considerable advantage, and for two main reasons. First, their design makes them much better suited to the constant ‘live view’ required for video capture. Second, this is where camera makers are concentrating their video capture technologies and where you’re going to get the best video features and performance.
But let's not forget that DSLRs can shoot video too. The Nikon D90 brought HD video to the consumer market, and the Canon EOS 5D II brought DSLRs into the professional videography and film-making arena.
Even so, when it comes to 6K and 8K capture, raw or 10-bit video, high frame rates and more, all the effort and development work is going into mirrorless cameras.
Sony has led the way with high-quality ‘oversampled’ 4K video in its full-frame mirrorless A7-series cameras like the A7 III, and Fujifilm and Panasonic now have cameras capable of capturing 4K video at 60/50fps for smooth 2x slow motion effects in the Fujifilm X-T4 and Panasonic Lumix GH5 Mark II and GH5S. The Panasonic Lumix S1H has already received accreditation from Netflix for original content creation.
If you only need video occasionally a DSLR will be fine, but if you need to shoot it as an important (or THE most important) part of your work, then mirrorless is the way to go. It’s not just the cameras – mirrorless lenses increasingly feature high-tech focus actuators and silent stepping motor autofocus technology for smooth and silent focus transitions when filming; the majority of DSLR lenses were designed at a time when this wasn’t even imagined.
• Read more: Video jargon explained
This is a difference between DSLRs and mirrorless cameras that never gets mentioned in the specs sheets but will have come to the attention of anyone who uses both camera types.
With mirrorless cameras, the sensor is much more exposed and much closer to the lens throat of the camera. With DSLRs, the sensor is right at the back of the camera and covered by the shutter and the mirror in front of it – the sensor is only exposed to dust when you take a picture (unless you shoot in live view).
Some mirrorless cameras seem much more susceptible to dust and other sensor debris than others. We have found some Sony cameras particularly prone to sensor dust, while Olympus, Panasonic and Fujifilm cameras are not affected as badly. Almost all cameras have automatic dust-removal systems which 'shake' the sensor to dislodge any foreign matter, but some are clearly more effective than others.
However, while mirrorless camera sensors may be more exposed to dust, they are also much easier to clean. DSLR sensors are the very devil to reach with dust-removing gadgets and need a special cleaning mode which locks up the mirror and opens the shutter.
DSLR vs mirrorless: the final word
Despite the rush towards mirrorless camera technology, the DSLR vs mirrorless debate is not completely one-sided. Here's a summary of the pros and cons of each camera type.
When to choose a DSLR
DSLRs are bigger, fatter, chunkier and more ‘grippable’. They handle better with bigger lenses (and lenses are getting bigger, year by year) and they have more space for external controls, so you spend less time navigating digital interfaces and tapping at touchscreens – and their batteries last all day instead of just the morning.
They also have optical viewfinders. Mirrorless users might not care, but DSLR fans would never swap the ‘naked eye’ viewfinder image of a DSLR for a digital simulation, no matter how good.
There’s another thing. If you’re on a tight budget you’ll have to work hard to find a mirrorless camera with a viewfinder for the same price as a DSLR – you will struggle to get a mirrorless APS-C camera with a viewfinder for the same prices as a Nikon D3500 or a Canon EOS 2000D. DSLRs are still amongst the best cameras for beginners.
When to choose mirrorless
Mirrorless camera bodies are smaller and, if you choose carefully, you can get smaller lenses to go with them – though this only really holds true with the Micro Four Thirds format, as APS-C and full frame mirrorless cameras come with lenses as large as their DSLR counterparts.
If you’re an Instagramer, influencer, blogger or blogger, a mirrorless camera like the Olympus PEN-EPL9 or Canon EOS M50 is perfect. They’re small, light and adaptable and have tilting/vari-angle screens that let you shoot from all sorts of angles. They’re great for both video and stills and can easily fit in an everyday bag.
If you’re a pro or semi-pro videographer, mirrorless is the way to go here, too. This is where all the video development in cameras, lenses, hardware and accessories is happening with cameras like the Nikon Z6 II and Sony A7 III. The Panasonic Lumix S1H is a video-centric mirrorless model that's making inroads into the pro cinema market, and the Fujifilm X-T4 is a mirrorless camera with video specs that are currently out on their own in this price range.
There is one final paradox. You might say that the DSLR design is retro, but in fact if you want a camera that looks and feels the way cameras used to, then a mirrorless camera is the way to go! See our guide to the best retro cameras to see why.
How we test cameras
We test cameras both in real-world shooting scenarios and in carefully controlled lab conditions. Our lab tests measure resolution, dynamic range and signal to noise ratio. Resolution is measured using ISO resolution charts, dynamic range is measured using DxO Analyzer test equipment and DxO Analyzer is also used for noise analysis across the camera's ISO range. We use both real-world testing and lab results to inform our comments in buying guides.