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The best photo editing software in 2022: Adobe has some serious rivals

Best photo editing software
(Image credit: James Paterson)

So the best photo editing software is Photoshop, right? Not any more! While Photoshop is a very powerful, technical tool, it doesn't provide the image cataloguing, the fast, non-destructive editing or the inspiring creative presets that have become an important part of the whole photo editing process today.

Despite its mighty reputation, Photoshop is just a photo editor. That's all it does. If you need to open a raw file it has to go through Adobe Camera Raw first, and that's not even the best raw processor out there. And to keep your images organized you need a tool like Lightroom to use alongside it.

But even this double-act doesn't provide a whole lot of creative inspiration. You can get lots of different profiles and presets for Lightroom, but nothing to match the scope and invention of those in the DxO Nik Collection, Exposure X7 or ON1 Photo RAW 2022.

If you want advanced black and white effects, retro/analog filters, HDR merging or one of dozen other specialised 'looks', you're often better off using a custom-made plug-in or a different application. And for crazy AI-driven reality distortion (and some rather good portrait enhancement tools), Luminar AI might be the tool you need.

That's not all. Adobe's subscription plans are still a deal-breaker for many, so any alternatives. that can match them for features but for a one-off fee are bound to be strong rivals.

So while we still have Photoshop and Lightroom at the top of our list it's only partly because they are still very good, but also to reflect the fact they are still the default choice for so many enthusiasts and creative professionals. However, they are by no means the ONLY choice.

If you're looking for a program that does exactly what Photoshop does, but without a subscription, take a look at Affinity Photo. Not happy with the Lightroom workflow or its results? Capture One is like Lightroom for pros. DxO PhotoLab can make the results from ordinary cameras and lenses look better than you could ever have imagined, and the DxO Nik Collection can apply one-click effects and filters that would take an age in Photoshop.

If you're looking for cheaper all-in-one photo editors, Adobe Photoshop Elements 2022 might seem the obvious choice, but also check out the Windows-only PaintShop Pro Ultimate 2022 too!

Best photo editing software in 2022

(Image credit: Adobe)

For professional retouchers and advanced editors, Photoshop still rules

PC: Intel Core 2 or AMD Athlon 64 processor 2 GHz, 2GB RAM (8GB recommended), Windows 7 to 10
Mac: Multicore Intel 64-bit, 2GB RAM (8GB recommended), OS X 10.11 or later
Hard drive: 4GB
Minimum screen resolution: 1024x768 pixels
Reasons to buy
+Immensely powerful+Clean, intuitive interface
Reasons to avoid
-Needs Lightroom for organizing-Raw processing is a separate step

Despite its immense power and constant steady improvements, Photoshop is slick and straightforward to use. Its support for selections, masks and layers is unmatched, making it the tool of choice for complex composite images, and the latest October 2021 updates bring smart new Neural Filters and auto masking – and its AI sky replacement is steadily improving and now rivals Luminar's. Despite its reputation for complexity, Photoshop actually offers a very clean, slick interface. There are no ‘novice’ modes, but the tools panel does offer fly-out animations that show you how the tools work and what they do. There are no image browsing or cataloguing tools in Photoshop itself, but since Lightroom is included in the same Photography Plans as Photoshop, that’s not an issue (or you can use Adobe Bridge, which is simpler). On its own, Photoshop is powerful but limited; with Adobe Lightroom it’s half of the world's most popular image editing double-act. Remember, though, that it's aimed at designers, illustrators and artists, not just photographers.

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(Image credit: Rod Lawton/Digital Camera World)

Lightroom is now so powerful, many photographers might hardly need Photoshop at all

PC: Intel Core 2 or AMD Athlon 64 2 GHz or faster, 2GB RAM (8GB recommended), Windows 7 SP1 to 10
Mac: Intel 64-bit, 2GB RAM (8GB recommended), OS X 10.12 or later
Hard drive: 2GB (10GB for CC)
Minimum screen resolution: 1024x768 pixels
Reasons to buy
+Seamless raw editing+Easy Photoshop 'round-tripping'+Mobile synchronisation
Reasons to avoid
-Lightroom CC is limited-Lightroom Classic can be slow

Lightroom is an all-in-one image cataloguing, raw processing and editing program and the perfect partner for Photoshop. If your main work is photo enhancement rather than manipulation, you might not need Photoshop at all. The October 2021 updates have brought new intelligent sky and subject masking features that further close the gap. HOWEVER, Adobe has made things more confusing by splitting off the ‘old’ Lightroom, now called Lightroom Classic, for regular desktop storage, and introducing a new, slimmed-down Lightroom which stores all your photos online. You get both in the main Adobe Photography Plan, but for us the Classic version is by far the best. It lets you apply one-click presets in a fraction of the time it takes to apply manual edits in Photoshop, and there's a great range of free Lightroom presets out there too. If only its raw processing was a little less noisy and as good as DxO's or Capture One's...

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It has all the power of Photoshop but without the subscription

PC: Processor not quoted, 2GB RAM (4GB recommended), Windows 7 SP1 to 10
Mac: 64-bit Core Duo 2 or better, 2GB RAM, OS X 10.9 or later
Hard drive: 670MB
Minimum screen resolution: 1280x768 pixels
Reasons to buy
+Powerful tools+Cheap to buy
Reasons to avoid
-No cataloguing tools-Quite technical

We complain that there's too much Photoshop doesn't do, but the fact is for many photographers this kind of old-school image-editor is exactly what they need. And Affinity Photo gives you exactly the same thing, but subscription-free, via a single extra-low payment. Affinity Photo is sold at a budget price point, but it has the tools and the features and the power to compete with Photoshop head-on. Serif has focused particularly heavily on the retouching market, with cloning, healing and retouching tools, an Inpainting tool for automatic object removal and a dedicated Liquify persona (workspace) for localized image distortion effects. Affinity Photo is an extremely powerful photo editor with more tools and features than there’s space to list here, from focus stacking and HDR tonemapping to high-end frequency separation. Now up to version 1.10, Affinity Photo has been steadily improved and evolved since its launch, but Affinity has yet to charge for any upgrade.

Read more: Affinity Photo 1.8 review

(Image credit: George Cairns/Digital Camera World)

Pricier than Lightroom but more powerful, with better raw processing

PC: 2-core CPU or better, 8GB RAM, Windows 7 SP1 to 10
Mac: 2-core CPU or better, 8GB RAM, OS X 10.12.6 or later
Hard drive: 10GB
Minimum screen resolution: 1200x800 pixels
Reasons to buy
+Excellent raw processing+Layers based adjustments+Great tethering tools
Reasons to avoid

Capture One works both as tethered capture and editing tool for studio photographers with a 'sessions' based workflow and as a Lightroom-style image cataloguing, searching and non-destructive editing tool. Capture One 2022 brings a new HDR merge feature – it works only on raw files but is extremely effective and natural looking – and a panorama merge feature too. Capture One works in a single window rather than in Lightroom-style ‘modules’ and has a highly customizable set of ‘tool tabs’. One of the key differences is its layers-based local adjustment system which makes it much easier to see and edit your changes to your work, and this now includes 'parametric' linear and radial gradient masks which you can edit later. Capture One’s conversions look smoother and sharper than Lightroom's, and Phase One's new co-operative arrangement with Fujifilm means it can produce just about the best Fujifilm processing you'll see and also recreate Fujifilm's Film Simulation modes. Fujifilm, Nikon and Sony users can get discounted one-brand versions of the software – but choose the all-cameras version if you work on files from multiple cameras. 

Superb raw processing and lens corrections, with powerful local adjustment tools too

PC: Intel Core 2 or AMD Athlon 64 X2, 4GB RAM (8GB recommended), Windows 7 SP1 to 10
Mac: Intel Core i5 or higher, 4GB RAM (6GB recommended), OS X 10.12 or later
Hard drive: 4GB
Minimum screen resolution: Not quoted
Reasons to buy
+Superb raw processing+Excellent lens corrections+Now supports X-Trans files
Reasons to avoid
-PhotoLibrary still quite primitive-Elite version quite expensive

DxO PhotoLab is the replacement for the old DxO Optics Pro, adding local adjustment tools from DxO's acquisition of the Nik Collection software to make it a more powerful all-round photo-editing solution. You use the PhotoLibrary window to browse your image folders, create Projects and carry out basic filtering and housekeeping tasks, but PhotoLab's real strength is its superb raw processing, amazingly effective DeepPRIME denoise tool (Elite edition only), excellent local image adjustments and highly effective (and automatic) lens corrections. The image quality produced by PhotoLab is second to none. On the downside, you’ll need the more expensive Elite edition to get DxO's DeepPRIME and ClearView Plus features, and if you want to apply perspective corrections (once built into Optics Pro) you’ll need the DxO ViewPoint add-on too. DxO has also added PureRAW to its software suite – a raw batch processing tool that turns regular raw files into 'Linear DNGs'. Other programs still treat these as raw files with all the tonal and color headroom you would expect, but they have DxO's superior demosaicing, noise reduction and lens corrections pre-applied. PhotoLab 5 at last brings compatibility with Fujifilm X-Trans files, plus a new selection/masking tool and more.

Read: DxO Photolab 5 review

(Image credit: DxO)

Still the best plug-in suite ever for analog, black and white, color and even HDR effects

PC: Intel Core 2 or AMD Athlon 64 X2, 4GB RAM (8GB recommended), Windows 7 64-bit SP1 to 10
Mac: Intel Core i5 or higher, 4GB RAM (8GB recommended), OS X 10.12 or later
Hard drive: 4GB
Minimum screen resolution: Not quoted
Reasons to buy
+The world's best plug-in suite+New Perspective Efex plug-in+New non-destructive workflow
Reasons to avoid
-Ideally needs a 'host' program

Nik Collection 4 is the latest version of the celebrated Nik suite, and consists of eight separate plug-ins which can also be used as standalone programs. Analog Efex Pro is brilliant at analog/darkroom effects, while Color Efex Pro is a hugely powerful suite of filters for individual use or combined into 'recipes'. Silver Efex Pro remains the best digital black and white plug-in ever and is updated in this version with a fresh, modern interface, a new ClearView option and more powerful selective control points. Viveza gets the same treatment and is elevated from a relatively simple local adjustment tool into a much more powerful plug-in. HDR Efex Pro is pretty handy as an HDR merging/effects tool, and while Sharpener Pro and Dfine feel pretty dated now, they can still be useful for output sharpening and noise reduction respectively. And then there's Perspective Efex, DxO's most recent addition, which offers powerful lens and perspective corrections, tilt-shift effects and advanced wide-angle distortion correction. You can use the Nik Collection 4 plug-ins with Photoshop, Lightroom and from within DxO PhotoLab – or use them as external editors with other programs like Capture One. The version 4.2 update improved compatibility with Photoshop running in M1 mode on the new M1 Macs, while version 4.3 adds 35 new 'seasonal' presets.

Read more: DxO Nik Collection 4 review

(Image credit: ON1)

ON1 Photo RAW 2022 is like the Swiss Army Knife of editing tools – it does EVERYTHING!

PC: Intel Core 2 Duo, Xeon, or better, 4GB RAM (16GB recommended), Windows 7 to 10
Mac: Intel Core 2 Duo, 4GB RAM (16GB recommended), OS X 10.12 or later
Hard drive: 1.5GB
Minimum screen resolution: 1280x720 pixels
Reasons to buy
+Great range of effects+Support for layers+Non-destructive editing
Reasons to avoid
-Some duplication of Develop/Effects tools-Browsing vs catalogs is confusing

ON1 Photo RAW is perhaps the single most complete solution of all the programs here, and the 2022 version is the best yet, with new Sky Replacement AI, the integration of ON1 NoNoise AI and more. There's also an optional ON1 subscription service for Adobe style image sharing and synchronizing with mobile devices. ON1 Photo RAW 2022 has a built-in hybrid browsing and cataloguing module that gives you fuss-free exploring of your image folders but more powerful search tools if you need them. It has an Edit module with Develop, Effects, Portrait and Local (adjustment) panels, and the Effects module alone has a vast array of filters that can be adjusted, masked and combined in an infinite array of permutations. It pulls off a particularly amazing trick, incorporating layers, masking and compositing tools into its fully non-destructive workflow. ON1 Photo RAW might not be as well-known as some rivals, but it's worth any keen photographer taking a look, especially with its fresh, crisp and modern new interface. The December 20 2022.1 update adds Liquify tools, Smart Albums and Snapshots.

(Image credit: Rod Lawton/Digital Camera World)

8. Exposure Software Exposure X7

Excellent for fans of evocative analog effects, and a powerful and efficient all-in-one editor

PC: Intel Core 2 or compatible, Windows 7 64-bit or later
Mac: Intel Core 2 or compatible, OS X 10.10 or later
Hard drive: Not quoted
Minimum screen resolution: 1280x768 pixels
Reasons to buy
+Powerful all-in-one editing tool+Easy non-destructive editing+Huge range of presets
Reasons to avoid
-Scanning large folders can be slow-Raw processing isn't great

Like ON1 Photo RAW 2022, Exposure X7 is a relatively little-known program that deserves a lot more recognition than it gets. It’s a subtle, powerful and efficient all-in-one photo editing and browsing tool that specializes in analog film effects and comes with a huge library of simple one-click preset effects. It doesn't offer image layers (only adjustment layers), so you can't combine photos, but for many photographers that won't matter. Exposure X 7's strengths are its neat, simpler interface, some beautiful effects and presets and straightforward and effective tools. Like ON1 Photo RAW 2022, it also offers non-destructive adjustments and 'virtual copies' to try out lots of different looks for a single image without having to save additional files. The presets and analog looks are amazing, though Exposure X7's raw processing is not the best and it can be slow to render high-resolution images.

(Image credit: Skylum)

Luminar's AI-driven filters and tools are amazing, and its Portrait tools superb

PC: Intel Core i5 or better, Windows 10 (64-bit)
Mac: MacOS 10.13.6 or higher
Hard drive: 10GB
Minimum screen resolution: 1280×768 or higher
Reasons to buy
+Wide range of filters and tools+Customisable workspaces+Non-destructive workflow
Reasons to avoid
-No support for layers-Templates lack a little variety

Skylum Luminar is a relative newcomer to the photo-editing scene but it's made a big splash already. Luminar AI offers a complete redesign on earlier versions, focusing heavily on AI effects and 'templates', automatically analyzing your images and suggesting some great looks. If you like the idea of an all-in-one photo-editor that can both organise your images and edit them with a fully non-destructive workflow, then you're in the right place! It even supports image layers, masks and montages. Luminar AI is a very powerful and effective mid-range photo-editor which is pioneering some very effective AI editing tools. Its AI Sky Replacement filter is quite exceptional, and its portrait enhancement tools are more subtle and effective than ever you'd expect in an all-round image editor. It can be used as a standalone program, or as a plugin with Photoshop CC, Lightroom Classic, or Apple Photos. It's just a shame that Skylum has stepped back from the more advanced approach in previous versions and placed so much faith in headline-grabbing AI tools.

• Luminar Neo is on its way, with new tools and a new approach. However, without even a beta version to look at, we're not going to get too excited about software we haven't even seen yet.

(Image credit: Cyberlink)

A great all in-one browsing, enhancement and effects tool, but a bit of a closed system

Compatible with: Windows 7+, Mac 10.11+
Payment model: One-off purchase or subscription
Free trial: 30 days
Reasons to buy
+Friendly interface +Supports Mac and Windows+Variety of payment options
Reasons to avoid

If you’re just getting started in photography, you may want photo organizing software that's relatively simple to get started with. In which case, take a look at CyberLink PhotoDirector, which has a friendly and approachable interface that beginners will find it easy to get on with. You can import photos or folders directly from your camera and organize them by categories, tags and keywords. There’s also a capable face recognition tool. When it comes to editing your images, there are a bunch of preset filters as well as basic editing tools. There are also a range of guided edits, such as Dispersion Effect and Glitch Art, that novices looking to improve their pictures will appreciate. 

(Image credit: George Cairns)

Elements is affordable and effective for novices, but can be patronising and kitschy

PC: 64-bit 1.6GHz or faster, 8GB RAM, Win 10 v1903 or later
Mac: Intel 6th Gen or later, 8GB RAM, OS X 10.14 or later
Hard drive space: 7.8GB
Minimum screen resolution: 1280x800 pixels
Reasons to buy
+Friendly interface+Guided edits
Reasons to avoid
-Raw processing limited-Many effects are crude

So far, every program in this list has been a stellar performer perfect for its own particular audience. Can Photoshop Elements 2022 do the same for its core market of novice creators?. The Elements editor, which has an eLive mode for inspiration and tutorials, a Quick mode for fast and simple effects, a Guided mode with an ever-expanding list of effects walkthroughs (three more added in the 2022 version), and an Expert mode with the full range of tools. You can get Photoshop Elements on its own, or with Adobe Premiere Elements as a bundle – Premiere Elements does for video what Photoshop Elements does for photography. Elements 2022 is good value, but despite the increasing inclusion of Adobe Sensei AI technologies, its interface, its approach to editing and its Guided Edits are all starting to look rather old-fashioned.

(Image credit: James Abbott)

Good value beginner/intermediate software, but Windows only

PC: Windows 10 (recommended version 1903 or later with the latest service pack (64-bit editions)
RAM: 4GB of RAM (8 GB recommended for AI tools)
Hard disk space: 3GB (4GB recommended)
Minimum display: 1366 x 768 (1920 x 1080 recommended)
Reasons to buy
+Choice of workspaces+Suits different user levels+Value for money
Reasons to avoid
-AI tools not always effective-Separate installers for bundled software-Windows only

PaintShop Pro 2022 builds on the upgrades in the previous release of the software to provide the best version to date. The price for the Ultimate version makes it a no-brainer over the standard version based on all the extras you receive for a small increase in price, but since this is Windows-only software Mac owners, unfortunately, miss out. Current 2021 users may find there aren’t enough new features to justify an upgrade, although users of older versions and newcomers to the software will not be disappointed. It's an interesting alternative to Photoshop Elements, giving photo editing novices a helping hand to get started but also offering more advanced tools for the more experienced.

(Image credit: James Abbott)

Promises a lot but can be confusing to use – an Adobe wannabe that's hardly cheaper than an Adobe Photography Plan

PC: Microsoft® Windows® 7 (SP1), Windows® 8, Windows® 8.1, & Windows® 10 (64-bit editions only)
RAM: 4GB (8GB+ recommended)
Hard disk space: 2GB
Min screen size: 1024 x 768 (1920 x 1080 recommended)
Reasons to buy
+Good organizing and raw processing+Good tutorial content
Reasons to avoid
-Complex multi-window interface-Poor HDR and focus stacking

There aren’t many all-in-one image editing software options available, and perhaps there’s a good reason for it; it’s difficult to be great at everything. ACDSee Photo Studio Ultimate 2022 is fantastic at image cataloguing and raw processing but perhaps falls down with image editing despite offering layers, filters, masking and adjustment layers. However, it's well worth considering for the image management and raw processing functionality alone. The ACDSee 2022 edition adds a Media mode for streamlined digital asset management, and a People mode for AI-powered facial recognition. There are new selection tools, a new color wheel for 'surgical, pixel-based selections' and brush-on noise reduction. The ACDSee PhotoStudio interface is quite dense and complex, though, and likely to be off-putting to beginners. ACDSee is also working on an interesting new photo editor called Gemstone. Read our ACDSee Gemstone Photo Editor 12 beta review.

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Rod Lawton

Rod is the Group Reviews editor for Digital Camera World and across Future's entire photography portfolio, with decades of experience with cameras of all kinds. Previously he has been technique editor on N-Photo, Head of Testing for the photography division and Camera Channel editor on TechRadar. He has been writing about photography technique, photo editing and digital cameras since they first appeared, and before that began his career writing about film photography. He has used and reviewed practically every interchangeable lens camera launched in the past 20 years, from entry-level DSLRs to medium format cameras, together with lenses, tripods, gimbals, light meters, camera bags and more.