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The best microphone for vlogging and filmmaking in 2021

The best microphone for vlogging and filmmaking
(Image credit: Rode)

Getting one of the best microphones for vlogging is one of the most efficient ways to improve the production value and quality of your videos. It may seem like the quality of the image is the most important thing, but in truth, viewers will respond much more negatively to poor sound than anything else. There's no faster way to make a video feel amateurish than having bad audio. 

All digital cameras and smartphones that shoot video will be able to capture audio to some degree, but built-in microphones leave a lot to be desired. They tend to record at noticeably lower quality than a dedicated microphone, and are at the mercy of external noise like wind, traffic or an insistent air conditioner. Whether you're shooting indoors or outdoors, this can be a ruinous problem. 

Even if you're using one of the best 4K cameras for filmmaking , or one of the best cameras for vlogging, you'll run into problems without a dedicated microphone. They can be small, portable and inexpensive, so there's no excuse not to pick one up if you're serious about making high-quality video.

It's worth looking into the various different types to figure out what you need. If you're going to be shooting interviews or panel discussions, then a wireless mic is a good choice. Also known as lavalier mics, these can be clipped to clothing, and will transmit their signal wirelessly to a receiver on your camera via radio. If you're worried about interference and know your subject isn't going to move very much, you can also get wired lavalier mics. 

Alternatively, a good do-everything microphone is the shotgun mic. This can either be mounted directly on the camera via the hotshoe, or rigged up on a stand nearby, and will simply record whatever it is pointed at. The uptick in quality over omnidirectional mics is immediately noticeable, and you'll be able to easily suppress background noise with a wind-shield if necessary.

For this guide, we've split things up into sections for the different types of microphone available. You can click the headings to the left to easily jump to the section of your choice. Also, if this is all getting a bit overwhelming, click to jump to our microphone jargon explained section for an overview of the terminology involved.

For now, let's jump into the best microphones for vlogging in 2021!

Studio microphones

Editor's Choice

(Image credit: Amazon)

1. Blue Yeti

The world's favorite studio microphone

Transducer type: Condenser | Form: Studio / desk | Polar pattern: Omnidirectional, cardioid, bi-directional, stereo | Frequency response: 15Hz-22KHz | Power source: USB | Supplied windscreen: None

Stunning sound quality
Four pickup patterns
Incredibly straightforward
No multi-head support

There's a reason that the Blue Yeti is many people's pick for best studio microphone: it's affordable, it's versatile, its sound quality is excellent, and its plug-and-play operation means that you can start recording with minimal fuss. If you've spent any time watching YouTube videos or live streams on Twitch, you've no doubt seen the Yeti sat on many content creators' desks – and you've probably noticed its chic retro design, too. 

All the controls you need are at your fingertips: on the front you have the volume control for your headphones and a cough / mute button, while the back is home to the gain dial and pattern selector. The three-capsule system powers four recording patterns, to tailor the audio capture to your studio or circumstances – whether you're recording solo or sat around the mic in a group, to record a podcast.

This is the mic that the DCW team uses – which is the highest praise we can give.

Wireless lavalier microphones

(Image credit: Angela Nicholson/Digital Photographer)

2. Rode Wireless Go

Superb miniature wireless mic system that you can take anywhere

Transducer type: Pre-polarised pressure transducer | Form: Clip-on pack | Polar pattern: Omnidirectional | Frequency response: 50Hz-20KHz | Power source: Inbuilt Li-po battery rechargeable via USB | Supplied windscreen: Furry

Miniature size
Great value for a wireless system
Available in black or white
More expensive than wired options

Billed as the the world's smallest and lightest wireless microphone system - this is a great option for those that want to record sound over more than a few feet, or in a crowded environment. 

The receiver and transmitter weigh just 31g a piece, and measure around 44 x 46 x 18.5mm each - and have built-in rechargeable batteries. The receiver connects to your camera using the short 3.5mm lead that is supplied, and then sits on the hotshoe. The transmitter has its own clip - so can be worn by your interviewee; it has a built-in mic – but there is a socket for attaching a more discrete lavalier, tie-clip, microphone should you wish. 

• See Rode Wireless Go review

If you need to record sound from more than one person, also check out the newer Rode Wireless GO II - which offers two transmitters, and a great range.

(Image credit: Digital Photographer)

Superb miniature wireless mic system that you can take anywhere

Transducer type: Condenser | Form: Lavalier | Polar pattern: Omnidirectional | Frequency response: 35Hz - 22kHz | Power source: 2 X AA Battery or MicroUSB | Supplied windscreen: pop shield

Wireless mic system
100 meter range
Expensive option

This is a high-quality wireless mic system – and has a price to match. It has three main components: the receiver, which connects to your camera via a supplied cable; the transmitter, which can be clipped onto a belt or slipped in a pocket; and a broadcast-quality lavalier microphone. 

The Filmmaker Kit can operate across eight channels, each with 1,000 transmission frequencies, which means that two kits can use the same channel without interfering with each other. It uses 2.4GHz digital transmission with 128-bit encryption, which can be used anywhere in the world without a license.     

(Image credit: Saramonic/B&H)

A budget-friendly option that's perfect for interviews

Transducer type: Condenser | Form: Lavalier | Polar pattern: Omnidirectional | Frequency response: 50Hz-18KHz | Power source: Built-in Li-ion or USB-C | Supplied wind screen: Foam windscreen

Twin microphone system
Tiny, portable system
Value for money
Non-replaceable batteries

This value-for-money system offers an open door into working with dual transmitters without the expensive price-tag. Operating with the widely used license-free 2.4GHz frequency and offering a line of sight distance up to 50 metres, the 500 B2 system offers a battery life of four hours on a single charge and can be powered up by (or run off) a powerbank thanks to the USB-C input. 

The antennas are internal, enabling the build of the units to be rounded and compact, with the transmitters weighing just 34g each.  The clip on the receiver fits into your hotshoe mount and, if you prefer, you can choose to connect the receiver to a smartphone instead via the TRS cable, though most will prefer to record directly to the camera. The transmitters have a built-in microphone so you can literally clip them on your interview subject and press record, but in addition, they also have inputs so you can plug in a standard lav mic (the SR-M1 model ships with the kit) if you choose. Units are paired by pressing down buttons and then they are good to go from that point forward which, again, will speed up operation and set-up time. The big appeal of this kit is the dual-channel receivers, enabling two people to be mic’d up for recording interviews.

Wired lavalier microphones

(Image credit: Digital Camera World)

5. Boya BY-M1

Amazing value and impressive sound quality

Transducer type: Condenser | Form: Lavalier | Polar pattern: Omnidirectional | Frequency response: 65Hz-18KHz | Power source: LR44 battery | Supplied windscreen: Foam

Great sound quality 
Very low noise
A bit oversized 
Easy to break

The Boya BY-M1 is a wired lavalier mic with a switchable power source. It runs on an LR44 button cell, and needs to be switched on if using a 'passive' source, or off if recording via a device with plug-in power. 

It comes with a lapel clip, and includes a foam windscreen to help dampen wind noise and plosives. It offers an omnidirectional polar pattern, and the frequency response stretches from 65Hz to 18KHz. 

While not as wide-ranging as some tie-clip mics here, this is still great for voice recording. The plastic construction of the capsule is a little bulkier than professional lavs, but the 6m lead is long enough to mic up your presenter and keep things tidy in the frame. 

Considering the low price, the BY-M1 delivers audio quality way beyond expectations. It does have a hotter output than others here, and there's no attenuator to dip the volume, so it's possible it the signal could distort on some equipment. 

But on our Canon EOS 5D Mk III, the result was an extremely low noise floor, giving excellent, hiss-free recordings. Although the build quality means it needs to be treated with care, this is an outstanding little mic. 

(Image credit: Digital Photographer)

6. Rode Lavalier Go

Use this tie-clip mic on its own, or with the Wireless Go

Transducer type: Condenser | Form: Lavalier | Polar pattern: Omnidirectional | Frequency response: 20Hz – 20kHz | Power source: via mic socket | Supplied windscreen: pop shield

Great sound quality 
Easy to use
Available in black or white
Wind muffler is extra

Although it’s designed to pair with the RØDE Wireless GO wireless microphone, the RØDE Lavalier GO is actually compatible with most cameras and recording devices, with a 3.5mm TRS mic input. 

It’s a professional-grade lavalier mic with an omnidirectional condenser capsule and a Kevlar-reinforced cable. It comes supplied with a foam pop shield, a metal clip and a soft bag for storage. 

The RØDE Lavalier GO delivers great sound when used with the Wireless GO or when connected directly to a camera. However, the pop shield doesn’t provide much protection from wind, and it’s advisable to purchase a windshield (such as the RØDE Minifur-Lav), if you plan to shoot outdoors regularly. That also lets you conceal the mic under clothing if you want it to be really discrete.

(Image credit: Audio-Technica)

7. Audio-Technica ATR 3350

Well made budget-level microphone

Transducer type: Condenser | Form: Lavalier | Polar pattern: Omnidirectional | Frequency response: 50Hz-18KHz | Power source: LR44 battery | Supplied windscreen: Foam

Refined build makes it easy to use
Mic hiss reduces quality of recordings

Like the Boya BY-M1, the ATR 3350 is a lavalier mic that runs on a switchable power unit fuelled by an LR44 button cell, but offers a broader frequency response that runs from 50Hz to 18Khz. 

A long, 6m cable ensures that the wire can be tucked away out of shot, and it's quite possible for presenters to walk in or out of frame while wearing it. A foam windshield is supplied, but it's worth investing in a small furry windmuff (cheap online) if you intend to use it outdoors. 

When recording voices, the quality is reasonable, and the omnidirectional polar pattern means it picks up sound from any direction. Although it gives a tad more bottom end in recordings, it outputs at a lower level than the BY-M1, and is also noisier, with more high frequency hiss. 

Build is a little more refined and the capsule is slightly smaller, and were it not for the fact that the BY-M1 is cheaper, the ATR 3350 would be worthwhile. It's not a bad mic at all, but the BY-M1's lower noise and lower price pips it to the post.

Shotgun microphones

(Image credit: Rode)

8. Rode VideoMic Go

A good choice for budget-conscious shooters

Transducer type: Condenser | Form: Shotgun | Polar pattern: Supercardioid | Frequency response: 100Hz-16KHz | Power source: None (plug-in power) | Supplied windscreen: Foam

Plug in and play
Fuss free mic that's well made
Hiss is apparent in the high frequencies

Rode make a vast range of video specific audio kit, from enthusiast-level all the way to high-end broadcast equipment. The VideoMic Go is at the lower end of the spectrum and mounts onto a hotshoe, with an effective shockmount to reduce handling noise. 

It's fuelled by plug-in power from the camera's mic socket, so doesn't need a battery, and there are no switches on board to attenuate the output or change polar patterns. 

This means you just plug it in, set your recording level, and start shooting. It comes with a foam windscreen to reduce wind noise, but there's an optional windjammer for breezy conditions that costs another £20/$25. 

Frequency response stretches from 100Hz-16KHz, but recordings were rich and full, so we didn't find it lacking in bass. There's a crispness to the sound as its response curve gently rises to give a boost at about 4KHz, but there is some hiss at the high end of the frequency ladder. 

Overall this is a well made, good-sounding mic that's very easy to use.

(Image credit: Rode)

9. Rode VideoMic Pro

A good choice for those prepared to invest in audio

Transducer type: Condenser | Form: Shotgun | Polar pattern: Supercardioid | Frequency response: 40Hz-20KHz | Power source: 1 x 9v battery | Supplied windscreen: Foam

Great sound 
Feature set for top recordings
Windjammer is needed, but costs extra

A little bulkier and heavier than the Rode VideoMic Go is Rode's VideoMic Pro. This hotshoe shotgun mic shares a similar size and design, but adds extra features for those seeking more flexibility and higher quality recordings. 

Although it's suspended on a similar shockmount as the Go, it incorporates a chamber for a 9V battery (not supplied), which serves as the power source for around 70 hours. 

On the back, there are two switches to tailor performance, and these alter the output gain (-10, 0 or +20 dB) or offer the choice between a flat response or one with a low frequency cut. 

The sound quality is excellent, with rich tonality throughout the 40Hz-20KHz range and a flat response all the way through the speech frequencies. Impressively, there's a very low noise floor that's comparable to the Boya BY-M1 lav mic, so only the hypercritical will be concerned about the trace of mic-generated hiss that's present. 

The supplied foam windscreen serves to protect the mic, but outdoors, a furry windjammer is needed to prevent wind noise, and the dedicated Rode model costs another £30/$38. 

This aside, The VideoMic Pro is an excellent mic, and more than justifies its price with its features and performance.

(Image credit: Sennheiser)

10. Sennheiser MKE 200

Premium performance at a palatable price

Transducer type: Condenser | Form: Unidirectional | Polar pattern: Super-cardioid | Frequency response: 40Hz ~ 20KHz | Power source: Camera / phone | Supplied windscreen: Deadcat

Clean, crisp audio capture
Integrated, internal shock protection
Camera and phone jacks supplied
Pricey, compared to Røde VideoMicro

With a Sennheiser product you know that you're going to get premium audio performance – and in spite of its affordable price point, the Sennheiser MKE 200 is absolutely true to form. Whether you're using a camera or a smartphone (cables are provided for both) this mic records rich, robust audio even in challenging conditions (thanks to the built-in windshield with optional dead cat if you need it). 

The build and design are premium in both form and function. The integral shock protection works very well, and the lack of an external shock mount bouncing around makes this look more professional than rivals like the Røde VideoMicro. However, the MKE 200 does come in more expensive than the Røde – with sound performance about on par, the VideoMicro might be more appealing if you aren't preoccupied with looks. 

At the same time, the MKE 200 feels more pocketable (and more robust for slinging in your camera bag). This, combined with its general ergonomics, make it a better choice in our book. 

See Sennheiser MKE 200 review

11. Sennheiser MKE 400 (2nd Generation)

A much-loved mic gets a 2021 refresh

Transducer type: Condenser | Form: Shotgun | Polar pattern: Supercardioid | Frequency response: 50Hz-20KHz | Power source: 2 x AAA battery | Supplied windscreen: Internal (furry also provided)

Broad compatibility
Compact and portable
Fairly basic features
Limits to internal wind shield

The original Sennheiser MKE400 was a popular mic among starting-out vloggers and filmmakers, so it makes sense that the firm saw fit to give it a little 2021 refresh. There's actually quite a lot different about this new version; it's a redesign from the ground up. 

There's a clear emphasis on making it appeal to a new generation of vloggers who may be shooting on a smartphone, as the new MKE400 is very easy to set up and use with a smartphone. It's supplied with with 3.5mm TRS and TRRS locking cables, and can also be purchased as part of a Mobile Kit with a GorillaPod tripod and smartphone clamp. Representing a very significant step up in audio quality from any smartphone's internal mic, this is definitely a smart purchase for any smartphone shooter.

It works with cameras as well of course, and vloggers of any stripe will find it does a commendable job in most conditions. The wind shield is now internal, though a furry extra is supplied for super-blustery days. A headphone jack on the side is useful if you're using a camera that doesn't have one, and the controls, while not the most sophisticated, do allow you to cut-out unwanted low frequency noise with ease.

(Image credit: Comica)

12. Comica Traxshot

This transforming mic is the most versatile ever

Transducer type: Condenser | Form: Mono / stereo / bi-directional shotgun | Polar pattern: Cardioid | Frequency response: 20Hz ~ 20KHz | Power source: Rechargeable battery (USB-C) | Supplied windscreen: Deadcat

Three configurations
Rear OLED screen
Premium build quality
Can be charged while in use

Unquestionably the most versatile microphone around, the Comica Traxshot is a transforming shotgun mic that enables you to record in four different configurations thanks to its dual capsule arm system. By pivoting the arms it can capture mono (both arms facing forward), two-level stereo (with the arms positioned at either 30° or 90°) and bi-directional (one arm forward, one back, to record subjects both in front of and behind the camera) audio patterns. The Traxshot is impeccably built, with solid metal construction that feels reliable and robust. The rear illuminated OLED panel gives useful feedback and enables you to easily set up the desired recording configuration, while the built-in Air-float Shock Mount delivers impressive stabilization. Best of all, it features a USB-C rechargeable battery – and you can charge the device while it's in use if the power runs dry.

(Image credit: Joby)

13. Joby Wavo

A lightweight microphone for smartphone shooters

Transducer type: Electret condenser | Form: Clip-on with Rycote Duo-Lyre and Hytrel shock mount | Polar pattern: Cardiod | Frequency response: 35Hz-18KHz | Power source: None (plug-in power from phone/camera) | Supplied windscreen: Deadcat

Good value
Small and compact
Delicate shock mount

Bad audio is the smartphone vlogger’s enemy #1, and even a small microphone like Joby’s Wavo Mobile can massively improve a video’s watch-ability. Measuring a palm-sized 81x22x22 mm and weighing a mere 50g, this compact and well-made mic is designed specifically for vloggers using a smartphone. A directional cardioid polar pattern for bringing-out and isolating voice, Wavo Mobile comes on a Rycote Duo-Lyre and Hytrel shock mount. Its cold shoe attaches directly to any camera, the top of Joby’s mobile smartphone mount, or to any or 1/4-inch tripod thread. It also comes with cables to attach it to any phone or camera, as well a windshield that makes a big difference when out and about. 
Also see: Best microphones for iPhone

Best microphone

(Image credit: Comica)

14. Comica CVM-VM20

A solid run-and-gun mic with a useful OLED screen, this suits DSLR and mirrorless users

Transducer type: Super-caridoid condenser | Form: Shotgun | Polar pattern: Super-cardioid | Frequency response: 20Hz-20KHz | Power source: Lithium-ion battery | Supplied windscreen: Foam

Lightweight and durable
Good battery life
Well priced
Battery not replaceable

Designed as a kind of do-it-all mic, the Comica CVM-VM20 is useful for DSLR and mirrorless video shooting where you may be encountering lots of different situations. The life of its lithium-ion battery is particularly impressive; it's rated to 60 hours, and practically you'll get at least a couple of days of recording out of it before needing to recharge. 

Solidly built, the Comica CVM-VM20 provides reliably high-quality sound, with two low-cut frequency modes to cut out noise in different situations. This gives you even more shooting versatility, while the stepless gain control lets you make quick and seamless adjustments if the situation changes.

The useful OLED screen helps you monitor battery levels, while the slim profile of the mic makes it an especially good companion for mirrorless systems. It lacks some of the more advanced features of other mics, like the ability to record multiple tracks at different levels simultaneously. But, well, that's why those mics cost more!

15. Sevenoak MicRig Stereo

Stabilizer and microphone to fit any camera

Transducer type: Condenser | Form: Stereo-only | Polar pattern: Wide-field stereo | Frequency response: 35Hz-20KHz | Power source: 1 x AA battery | Supplied windscreen: Furry Windjammer

Decent quality 
A wide stereo field
Very bulky as a mic 
Not tripod friendly

The MicRig is a unique product that offers a a stereo mic integrated into a camera rig-cum-stabiliser. It will hold anything from a smartphone to a DSLR (brackets for phone and GoPro cameras are included), and the mic plugs into the camera via a supplied lead. 

A furry windjammer is included for outdoor use in breezy conditions, and the frequency response stretches from 35Hz-20KHz. A low-cut filter can be switched on to reduce bass rumble, and there's a -10dB attenuator switch if you need to reduce output to match your camera. 

It runs on a single AA battery, and although the rig provides a useful handle, the plastic build flexes under the weight of a DSLR. The audio quality of the stereo-only mic reveals a little high frequency hiss, but gives a good, natural response with a wide stereo field. 

Its size may prove too bulky for some and although there's a 1/4in thread on the base of the plastic thumbscrew that mounts the camera, it's doesn't give a particularly solid purchase on a tripod, so the unit is more for handheld use only.

(Image credit: Audio-Technica)

16. Audio-Technica AT8024

Big on price, but has the features to match

Transducer type: Condenser | Form: Shotgun | Polar pattern: Cardioid mono + Stereo | Frequency response: 40Hz-15KHz | Power source: 1 x AA battery | Supplied windscreen: Foam + Furry Windjammer

Good quality for mono/stereo 
Natural sound
A little high-frequency hiss is evident

The AT8024 is a shoe-mount shotgun mic that offers a broad array of features. It sports a rubber mount to insulate the mic from camera and handling noise, and offers two pickup patterns for either wide-field stereo or cardioid mono. 

Although it's the most expensive option here, it does come with both a foam windscreen and a furry windjammer that's very effective at cutting out wind noise – even in a strong breeze. 

It runs for 80 hours on a single AA battery (included), and delivers a 40Hz-15Khz frequency response. Overall, this is a great fit-and-forget mic, that's well constructed and well appointed with accessories. 

The mic's noise floor isn't perfect, so it does suffer from a little high-frequency hiss, but recordings are full and natural sounding. It's a bonus having the option to capture stereo at the flick of a switch, and a roll-off filter to cut bass rumble plus a 3-stage gain option to tune the mic's output to your camera's input ticks all the required boxes. 

Pair this with a lav for interviews, and you'll be well kitted out for high-quality videos.

(Image credit: Shure)

17. Shure VP83 LensHopper

Good, well made mic, but sounds rather thin

Transducer type: Condenser | Form: Shotgun | Polar pattern: Supercardioid | Frequency response: 50Hz-20KHz | Power source: 1 x AA battery | Supplied windscreen: Foam

Crisp and clear audio with noise-free results
Bass response is a little lacking

The VP83 LensHopper is a short, hotshoe shotgun mic that runs for 130 hours on a single AA battery (included), and offers a supercardioid pickup pattern. 

It suppresses sound very effectively from the sides, focusing attention on where your lens is pointed. The capsule is mounted on a shock absorbing Rycote lyre system that isolates the mic from handling noise, and gains of -10, 0 and +20dB are on offer to tune the output to your camera's input. 

There's the option of a flat or low-cut response to reduce any bass rumble, and in our tests with the Canon 5D Mk III, the VP83 gave the lowest noise floor of all, so barely any hiss at all was evident in our recordings. 

Although the VP83 boasts a frequency response of 50Hz-20KHz, the response curve isn't as flat as the Rode Video MicPro, and there's less bass in the output, giving a thinner sounding recording, with the emphasis on mid and high frequencies. 

This cuts through well in terms of clarity, but ultimately, doesn't sound as rich and natural.

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Microphone jargon explained

Microphones have their own jargon. Here's a glossary of mic terms to explain what they all mean, what you need to know and how to use this to choose the best microphone.

An external microphone is an essential purchase if you're serious about getting quality sound recordings on your videos, but which type should you choose? To help you become more au fait with the world of sound recording, here's the lowdown on the audio jargon you can't avoid running into...

What is a polar pattern?

The direction from which a mic can pick up sound cleanly is known as its polar pattern, and this varies according to its design and intended use. In many ways, a mic's polar pattern is a bit like the audio equivalent of a lens's focal length, as it tells you how wide or narrow the pickup angle will be.

What is an omnidirectional mic?

Omnidirectional mics pick up sound from all around the capsule, and this polar pattern is popular on lavalier mics clipped to a presenter's clothing, as the wearer is likely to look up and down and turn their head from side to side while speaking. With omni lavs, it's also common to mount them upside down. This shields the capsule's top from plosives and nasal exhales, with only a small decline in high frequency response and sound level.

What is a cardioid mic?

Cardioid (heart-shaped) polar patterns are common on many types of mics. These pick up sound from the front and sides of the mic, and it falls off at the rear. Cardioid patterns are usually seen on handheld vocal and instrument mics, where the lack of rear response makes them less susceptible to feedback.

What is a supercardioid mic?

Supercardioid polar patterns offer a narrower pickup zone than regular cardioids, so they reject sound coming in from the sides much more. They are more sensitive to sounds from the rear than a cardioid though, so you need silence behind the mic when using them.

What is a hypercardioid mic?

Hypercardioid mics reject even more side-on sounds and are more focused on sounds directly in front. As they're very directional, and have a barrel shape, they're often called 'shotgun' mics, but they're also sensitive to sounds from the rear, so as with a supercardioid, you need to ensure all is quiet behind the mic to get a clean recording of the source you're targetting.

What is a bicardioid mic?

The figure-of-eight or bidirectional mic is the last popular polar pattern. This picks up sounds equally well from the front and rear, but strongly rejects anything coming in from either side. In essence, a figure-of-eight is used like a double-headed mic, so two sources 180 degrees apart can be cleanly recorded.

What is frequency response?

Sound waves are carried through the air, and are measured in cycles per second (also known as Hertz). This is essentially how many times the wave vibrates air molecules in a second to produce a 'note'. Soundwaves stretch from very low frequencies (think of a very low tone) to high frequencies (a very high, shrill note) and someone young with perfect ears may hear from as low as 20 cycles per second (20Hz) to a very high 20,000 cycles (20KHz). 

This 20Hz-20KHz is the maximum frequency range of human hearing, though falloff occurs - especially at the upper limit - with age. By the time we pass 25, we're unlikely to hear beyond 15KHz, and this drops down to about 12KHz at 50 years. 

To get natural-sounding audio, a mic needs to capture the frequencies we hear, and its frequency response reveals the lowest and highest-pitched sounds it is capable of recording. Professional mics often also have a frequency response chart, so the user can see how the mic may 'colour' the sound with an increase or reduction in sensitivity at particular frequency groups. If the frequency response is relatively flat across the range of human speech (about 100Hz to 8KHz), then the mic will produce a natural-sounding recording. 

Phantom and Plug-in Power

Unlike 'passive' dynamic mics, condenser mics require power to run, and mixing desks, field recorders and video cameras in the pro sector offer XLR mic inputs with switchable phantom power. This is sent down the mic lead to fuel the mic's electronics, so no additional power supplies are needed. Enthusiast condenser mics also need power, but either take a battery or use a different standard with a low voltage, called Plug-in Power (PiP). This is sent through the mic lead from the device via its 3.5mm jack socket. Many audio recorders, camcorders and DSLRs offer this, so you can use PiP mics, but check your camera's manual. If your DSLR only offers a passive (unpowered) 3.5mm jack socket for external mics, you'll need a mic that offers its own power source in the form of a battery. 

Types of microphones

What is a shotgun mic?

A shotgun microphone is a 'barrel' shaped mic with a hypercardioid pickup pattern that's used extensively in film and TV production to isolate the sound coming from a specific direction. Shotguns may be mounted on the camera, so they target the sound that the lens is pointing at, or attached to a telescopic boom pole. The boom allows them to be placed as close to the source as possible, while keeping the mic itself just out of frame. The mic is suspended on a shock-absorbing mount, so the boom can be moved and the mic directed at the sound source without creating any handling noise.

What is a lavalier mic?

(Image credit: Digital Camera World)

A lavalier microphone is a very small condenser mic that can be clipped to a lapel to remain in close proximity to the mouth of the speaker. It is also often called a tie-clip mic. Because they are visually unobtrusive and give great audio quality, lavs are now the default choice for TV presenters and interview subjects. A subset of the lav is the headworn mic, which is either hidden in the performer's hair or on a small boom that's clipped around the ears. This ensures the mic stays close to the mouth even if the head is turned.

Large diaphragm condenser microphones

A large diaphragm condenser is the most common mic for studio voice recordings, such as voice-over for programmes or vocals for music. Because it's a powered condenser mic, it's able to record crisp, high frequencies much better than unpowered dynamic mics, and the large diaphragm within the capsule does a wonderful job of recording voices really cleanly. Although budget studio condensers are available, and are often sold as 'podcast' mics that plug in to a computer via USB, top pro-quality models are very expensive, costing several thousand pounds.

Handheld mics

A handheld microphone is a medium-sized mic designed to be held by the performer or clipped to a stand. They're mainly used for work like speeches and live vocals over a PA system, but examples like Shure's SM58 is sometimes seen on screen as a general purpose interview mic or used as a general purpose post-production tool for voice-overs. Handheld mics are normally very robust, dynamic mics, so they'll withstand loads of abuse and require no independent power source for them to work.

What is a boundary microphone?

A boundary micrphone is an omnidirectional condenser mic that can be placed on a surface like a table. Sometimes called a plate mic owing to its flat shape, they're often used to record meetings or conferences, where speech could be coming from any direction. In a studio, they may be used to capture the live sound of the room.

What is a parabolic microphone?

A parabolic mic is a highly directional mic that works like a satellite dish to focus the sound waves onto a central point, where the mic is situated. They're sometimes used to isolate distant sounds in wildlife recording, but low frequency response is very poor on portable dishes, so they are more common in surveillance use.  

See also: Video jargon explained - what the specs mean