Circular polarizing filters are among the most important filters you can buy for your camera.
To learn how to get the most from a circular polariser
Time: 10 minutes
Skill level: Beginner
Kit needed: DSLR, circular polarizer
They are pretty much essential for landscape photography as they enable you to give skies extra punch, and help to reduce glare and reflections from shiny surfaces.
Polarisers work by filtering out so-called polarised light (ie light waves travelling in a single plane, rather than in all directions).
When light reflects off a non-metallic surface (such as water) it becomes partially polarised, and a polarising filter can be rotated so that it blocks this polarised light, but lets light waves travelling in other planes pass through.
This helps to reduce glare on everything from sweaty faces to waxy leaves, and allows the natural colours and details to show through.
Similarly, some of the light from the sky is polarised, and filtering out this component of the light darkens the sky. Clouds are less affected, which is why they often look so white and fluffy against the darker blue sky.
Step by step: Do the twist
1. Size things up
Circular polarisers attach to the front of your lens, so your filter’s diameter will need to match the filter thread of your lens. If your lenses vary in diameter, you can get step-up rings that enable you to attach your filter to any lens. These can also help reduce vignetting.
Circular polarisers reduce the amount of light entering the lens. You may need to adjust your exposure, but if you're using Av, TV, P or Auto modes, your camera should do this automatically.
2. Check the effect
It can be tricky to predict how a polariser will affect a scene. Holding the filter up to the sky will allow you to preview the effect, but it’s far easier to see any effect by looking through your camera’s viewfinder as you rotate the filter when it is attached to the lens.
3. Find the best angle
Polariser filters are most effective if you shoot at 90 degrees to the sun. In other words, keep the sun to one side of you to get the bluest skies possible. Stay safe, though, by making sure you don't look directly at the sun through the viewfinder while searching for its position.
Circular polarisers can cause vignetting (a darkening of the image corners), especially on wide-angles lenses. Polarisers with slimmer frames can help, though these are pricier than standard ones.
4. Fine-tune the effect
Once your filter is in place and you’re standing at the right angle to the sun, you might think you’re all set to take the shot – but you can still boost the sky some more. Rotate the front ring of the filter to maximise the intensity of the polarising effect.
5. Avoid wide angles
As mentioned in the introduction, polarisers increase the contrast and saturation of your images, especially in blue skies, but you should take care. With wide-angle lenses, the strength of the polarising effect can vary across the frame, so it can sometimes look a bit uneven.
6. See through water
By reducing the reflections from, for example, a shallow river, a polariser can help cut through the glare to reveal the rocks in the riverbed below. This effect is more noticeable on still water when the sun is 30-60 degrees above the horizon, but it’s also apparent on moving water.
Read more: How to improve your landscape compositions
The best polarizing filters