3. 3:2 Landscape format
Most DSLRs and many compact system cameras have a sensor with a 3:2 aspect ratio which means the majority of images are shot in this format.
Cropping to create a 16:9 image, a more dramatic panorama format such as 1:3 or a square (1:1) picture can give the result much more impact, but it’s usually best to compose with this in mind at the shooting stage.
Many compact system cameras allow you to specify the aspect ratio of images so you can preview the result before you shoot, but a piece of card cut to the right format and held over your camera’s screen while you compose in live view (or review) works just as well.
4. Obvious HDR
High dynamic range (HDR) photography involves shooting a series of images with different exposures which are then combined to create a single image that has greater detail in the shadows and highlights than is normally possible.
It can also be done by processing a single image (preferably a raw file) two or three times to generate a series of images with different brightness that can then be combined.
When pushed to extremes HDR photography can bring out details that aren’t normally visible to the eye and produce dramatic results.
However, it’s often used to add drama to a dull scene and the images frequently look very unnatural, demonstrating the use of the technique rather than create a pleasing picture.
When used with subtlety HDR photography can add a little detail to deep shadows while retaining information in the bright clouds, it can be especially useful when shooting sunsets or in high contrast daylight.
The 10 Commandments of Landscape Photography (and how to break them)
10 quick landscape photography tips
Creative Landscape Photography: master the dark art of shadows and shade
Composing pictures with foreground interest: simple ways to draw in the eye