High Dynamic Range techniques
HDR stands for ‘high dynamic range’ photography. It’s a two-stage process where you shoot a series of exposures of the same scene and then combine them using software to reproduce a wider range of tones than the camera could capture with a single exposure.
There are two approaches you can take. There’s the ‘realistic’ HDR technique, where you’re trying to manage a high brightness range, but want the photo to look normal, and there’s the ‘artistic’ approach, where you’re creating an obvious HDR effect with darkened highlights, detailed shadow areas, and strong outlines. HDR software can do both.
Camera makers, meanwhile, are starting to incorporate HDR modes in their cameras where the camera shoots a series of exposures and combines them in-camera. These are designed more for realism than artistic effect.